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From 1821 to 2021, two hundred years of motor history

Electric motors, or motors in our daily life, date back to the 19th century. The appearance of the motor largely benefits from the law of electromagnetic induction and the discovery of the law of electromagnetic force. Motors, generators, transformers, and control motors are all machines based on the principle of electromagnetic induction.


As a kind of transform electricity or transmission of electromagnetic devices, the key is the driving torque, motor as the key mechanical and electrical engineering energy conversion equipment, is the basis of the electric drive components, main application widely, product variety many, the specification model is complex, the product features determines the market concentration is not high, the industry chain enterprises involves niche, No significant regularity, regional and periodic characteristics.The wide application of motors in modern life also promotes the continuous evolution of motors. According to different applications, motors have different design and driving modes, which leads to the obvious increase of motor models and types of components.We simply classify motors according to their uses and characteristics.
In the general use of the motor now, what kind of development history of the motor?Let’s go back to the origin, talk about the past life of the motor.01 Theoretical preparation and exploration


On July 21, 1820, Oster, a physicist and professor at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark, discovered the “magnetic effect of electric current” and established the mutual connection of electromagnetism, which gave birth to electromagnetism.In 1821, the famous British physicist Faraday made the first experimental motor model. In 1822, Faraday proved that electricity could work and move, and mankind entered the electric age. The second industrial Revolution began with the successful invention of the first practical electric generator. Faraday later discovered electromagnetic induction in 1831, and he also discovered the law of electrolysis and conducted a large number of fruitful studies on gas discharge, which prepared conditions for the discovery of roentgen rays, natural radioactivity and isotopes and laid a foundation for the development of modern physics. In the course of his research in electromagnetism, he created new words such as diamagnetism, paramagnetism, dielectric, force line, anion, cation and so on, and proposed the concept of “field”.Faraday made the first experimental electric motor, generator, transformer, and studied the liquefaction of gases, optics, and electrochemistry. He was truly the father of electricity and alternating current electricity.In 1870, The Belgian Gramm invented the dc generator. In design, a DC generator is very similar to an electric motor. Later, Gram showed that if an electric current was fed to a direct current engine, its rotor would rotate like an electric motor. As a result, this Gram type motor was manufactured in large numbers and its efficiency was significantly improved.In 1888, American inventor Tesla invented ac motor based on the principle of electromagnetic induction. This kind of motor is simple in structure, uses alternating current, no rectification, no spark, is widely used in industrial household appliances, ac motors usually use three-phase AC power supply.The motor is mainly composed of rotor, stator, brush, end cover and bearing components. The stator is composed of stator core, frame, wire winding, and other structural parts fixing these parts. The rotor is composed of rotor magnetic pole, rotor core, slip ring, rotating shaft, fan and other components. Generator current generation is through the bearing, the frame and the end cover of the generator stator, rotor assembly, so that the rotor in the stator rotation, through the slip ring into a certain excitation current, so that the rotor becomes a rotating magnetic field, the stator coil to do cutting magnetic field lines of motion, thus generating induction potential. It is led out through terminals, connected to the loop, and an electric current is generated. Because the brush is connected with the rotor, there is a break, so that the rotor rotates in a certain direction, producing alternating current, referred to as alternating current.



02 Motor development stageThe first part of the development of DC motor can be roughly divided into the stage of permanent magnet as magnetic field, the stage of electromagnet as magnetic pole and the stage of changing the excitation mode. Because of the use of the motor must be provided by the dc generator current, so the three stages of development in the field technology is a key technology in the development of dc motor, he provides the technical theory support for generator, motor development and progress, along with the development of the generator motor has entered the stage of new applications.


Heldt, Denmark, 1854. The Werner brothers patented a self-excitation generator. Since then, scientists have invented series self-excited motor and self-shunt excitation generator, which have greatly changed the performance of DC generator and brought the development of DC motor into a new stage.The improvement of DC motor was concentrated in the 1960s and 1970s, during which toothed armature, ring armature and drum rotor were invented successively. The new technology greatly reduced the production cost of motor, and the motor entered the era of practical application.With the development of DC power generation technology, the maximum voltage of DC generator can be 57.6 kv, the maximum output power is 4,650 kW, and the transmission distance can reach 180 km. But this soon reached technical limits, and AC motors began to be taken seriously.In 1889, Russian engineer Dulev – Dupolovorsky invented the squirrel cage three-phase motor, which is the first practical three-phase AC motor, so far the motor development can enter the stage of industrial application.
03 Development trend of motorAt present, China’s motor industry has made remarkable progress after 40 years of development, especially after the reform and opening up. Motor is one of the indispensable components of mechanical equipment. Under the background of global energy consumption reduction, high efficiency and energy saving motor has become the consensus of global motor industry development.The future development trends of motor are as follows:

1. Under the framework of energy conservation and emission reduction, high-efficiency energy-saving motor is the inevitable direction of motor industry development. High-efficiency energy-saving motor will drive the industrial chain to achieve rapid development. High efficiency and energy saving motor will push China’s industry to a new height and help achieve the made in China 2025 goal. As far as the industry is concerned, the small motor manufacturing industry will develop to the direction of scale, standardization and automation, while the large and medium-sized motor manufacturing industry will develop to the direction of specialization, diversification and customization with increasing single capacity.

2, the motor form is more diverse, the motor gradually to the direction of specificity. China’s industrial development requirements and people’s requirements for the quality of life make the demand for motor is diverse, at the same time in the past, the same motor used for different load types, different occasions will be broken, more inclined to the special scene.

3, the structure of the motor will be more compact and fine. In the future, the development of smart cities and industrial automation will significantly increase the demand for intelligent robots and automation equipment, and it is expected that intelligent robots and automation equipment will be developed on a large scale in the future. Its operation must be driven by a motor, and the requirements of these fine operations for the motor will be small and delicate.

From home appliances to industrial appliances, motors are an essential part of national life. Therefore, the motor performance for the use of products and product quality is self-evident, but it also indirectly affects our quality of life.